Pinworm Infection

Pinworm Infection



Pinworm infection


     The pinworm infection is a parasitosis containe in the same group as nematodosis, antroponosis and contact invasions, caused by Enterobius vermicularis, which is usually transmitted through oral ways, clinically characterized by dyspepsia symptoms, neurological symptoms, affecting other organs, also through intense burning and itching in the anal region.

     Enterobius vermicularis is attached to the small group of nematodes. The female's length reaches 9-12 mm and the male - 3-5 mm; they have a round shape, are sharpened at the extremities and have a whitish color. The female deposits eggs that contain larvae. These larvae develop, with favorable conditions (temperature 35 degrees - 37 degrees C, humidity 90-100%, becoming invasive than 4-5 hours). The eggs become invasive in favorable conditions in the environment and they can be alive up to 3 weeks.

     Arriving by different pathways in the human digestive tract, especially in the lower intestine, the larvae emerge from the eggs. These go up to the upper intestine, where they stick to the mucosa feeding their self with intestinal contents, and sometimes with blood. The time the larvae need to become mature is between 12-14 hours. Males die after the process of fertilization, and females begin to produce eggs for a later pinworm infection. The eggs are accumulated after fertilization in the lower intestine. For a full larval development from eggs they need a great amount of oxygen.

     In addition the female migrates out through the hole in the intestine and rectum going out through the anus, to submitting the eggs to envelope. There larvae finish the development stage reaching the invasive stage leading up to pinworm infection. One female can deposit from 5 to 17 thousand eggs and then dies. The duration of survival of the parasite in human intestine is not greater than a month. The patient with pinworm infection is a source for infecting other hosts. The mechanism of the pinworm infection is oral.



     The main factors of transmission of this invasion are dirty hands. The parasite's exit in the perianal region to deposit eggs causes burning and itching in that region. By scratching, the person gets under the nails a lot of pinworm eggs. Children are prone to putting their dirty fingers in the mouth that can lead to pinworm infection. The eggs of the Enterobius vermicularis can get on the bed sheets, body, on the floor, from where they can get airborne with dust.

     From the airborne dust the eggs of this pest can land on bread, water, milk and other food items from the environment, where they penetrate the human's digestive tract. In the pinworm's infection pathogenesis the primary importance is the mechanical action of the parasite on the mucosal gut. It is represented by the mechanical and chemical excitement of the receptors in the intestinal mucosa in correlation with the movement of the parasite on the intestinal wall. This excitement can lead to disturbances of the secretory function of the digestive tract and the occurrence of gastritis, enteritis or enterocolitis.

     Female worm movements cause itching, which cause scratching around the anus. Eggs are caught under the nail, and it is sufficient that the person to take their fingers to mouth to swallow them or submit them on the food they shared with others for auto pinworm infestation and contamination processes to trigger. Children can carry the eggs on toys or blankets and potentially transmit the disease.

     Ingested eggs hatch in the intestine, develop into larvae which in adults take from two to six weeks.