Pinworm In Adults

Pinworm In Adults

Pinworm in adults

     Enterobiasis is a parasitosis which appeared through infection of the human body with pinworms. Infection is widespread around the globe, affecting mainly children in 5-9 years age group, but not only. There are also a lot of cases with pinworms in adults. It is estimated that over 200 million people are infected. Infection occurs in groups (usually families), and occurs in all socioeconomic classes and is not necessarily correlated with poor hygiene. Pinworms are parasitic nematodes which have as a source of infection the human and are found almost exclusively only in the digestive tract of the host. They are small-sized worms: adult male is 1-4 mm in length and the female is 8-13 mm. Are elongated and have very rear heads. Mainly populate the large intestine.

Transmission mode of the pinworm in adults

     The main route of infection is represented by the fecal-oral (contaminated food and dirty hands), but there are autoinfection (exogenous and endogenous). Unlike many other intestinal parasites, pinworms do not pass in the bloodstream and reach only rarely in other organs (vagina, uterine tube, liver or peritoneum). Only in the digestive tract they have favorable conditions for development and multiplication.

     Often the patient is infected with embryonated eggs. The eggs develop into adults in about 1 month. They are temporarily locates into the small intestine, then in the thick. After mating the male dies and the female remains in check until egg maturation. The female then migrates to the anus, stands outside the host body and lodge them in the perianal, or anal mucosal folds. The process takes place at night, while the host sleeps, and the result is he outside store of about 10-20000 eggs. Eggs are deposited in a substance very itchy (which is secreted by the female). Itching caused by this substance is increased also by the movements the female perform and which ultimately will cause the patient to scratch hard. Thus, the eggs get under his fingernails, fingers, on your underwear. After the deposited eggs, the female dies, too. Eggs are spherical, and of order of microns in size (and therefore can not be seen with the naked eye). They are surrounded by a chemical which gives them grip to the skin and clothing. Evolution of female egg outside the uterus continues still 6 hours to reach the egg stage embryos. They are then ingested, get in the duodenum, and mature in about 45 days. Eggs can resist external environment 2-3 weeks (there are even water resistant).

     Infection can be spread easily in the same family, in the local kindergartens, schools and are not associated with a lack of hygiene. Pinworm in adults is a disease that can be treated very effectively with antiparasitic drugs.

Therapeutic Principles

     Treatment of pinworm in adults should be done as quickly. Drugs may be administered from the class OTC (over the counter, they do not need a prescription to be issued) or special, which is issued only on prescription. Drugs are able to stop the disease, decrease contagiousness and prevent reinfection.

Prevention tips

     To limit the potential for extension of infection or the danger of autoinfection, patients are advised:

  • As to wash hands properly and frequently, especially after using the toilet and before eating;
  • Avoid the contact of the hands with the perianal region;
  • Cut their nails;
  • To regularly wash their clothes and bedding;
  • To bathe and change their underwear daily.

     If a family member is diagnosed with pinworm infection, all members of that family will be investigated because of the risk that the infection has affected them.

Common symptoms of pinworm in adults

     The most common symptoms of pinworm infection are represented by patients with pruritus and uncomfortable sensation with perianal location. Most adults with pinworms do not have other associated symptoms and are not aware that they are infected. In more serious cases pruritus is very severe and significantly affects the patient's life, not let him rest at night. Pinworm patient can lose weight and become very anxious compared to that time he was healthy. Pinworm infections can not be diagnosed until symptoms appear.